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  UN in Belarus > About Belarus > State system

State system

The Republic of Belarus is a unitary democratic social state with the rule of law, which possesses supremacy and full authority on its territory and independently carries out its domestic and foreign policy. The territory of Belarus is unified and inalienable.

    The symbols of the Republic of Belarus, as a sovereign State, are its State Flag, State Emblem and State Anthem. The capital of Belarus is the city of Minsk.

    State languages of the Republic of Belarus are Belarusian and Russian.

    State power in the Republic of Belarus is exercised on the basis of its division into legislative, executive and judicial branches.

    The President of the Republic of Belarus is the Head of State. The President is elected by general, free, equal, direct and secret ballot. Presidential elections are regulated by the laws of the Republic of Belarus.

    The Parliament , i.e. the National Assembly of the Republic of Belarus, is the representative and legislative body of power. The Parliament consists of two Chambers  the Chamber of Representatives and the Council of the Republic.

    The Government , i.e. the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus, is the central body of state management, the executive power in the Republic of Belarus. In its activities, the Government is subordinated to the President and reports to the Parliament.

    The judicial power in the Republic of Belarus belongs to courts and is exercised by general, economic and other courts envisaged by the legislation of the Republic of Belarus. The control over correspondence of standard laws in the State to the Constitution is performed by the Constitutional Court. The Constitutional Court gives evaluation on correspondence of standard laws to the Constitution upon the request of the President, the National Assembly, the Supreme Court, the Supreme Economic Court and the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus.

    The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus establishes the principle of the supremacy of law. The State and all of its bodies and officials act within the limits of the Constitution and the laws adopted in accordance with it. Provision of personal rights and freedoms of the citizens of the Republic of Belarus is the ultimate goal of the State.

    The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus establishes the responsibility of the State before its citizens for the creation of conditions for the free and adequate development of the individual, and the responsibility of citizens before the State for the strict fulfillment of the responsibilities laid upon them by the Constitution.

    The Constitution guarantees the citizens of the Republic of Belarus the right to health protection, including free treatment in state health care institutions. The Fundamental Law also guarantees free general education and professional technical training. Secondary special and higher education is accessible to all, depending on the abilities of each person. The citizens have the right to social security at old age, in case of illness, disability, loss of a breadwinner, and in other cases stipulated by law. The Constitution establishes the right of everyone to legal assistance in the exercise and protection of one's rights and freedoms.

    The multitude of political institutions, ideologies and opinions is one of the foundations of exercising democracy in the Republic of Belarus. On the territory of the Republic of Belarus the creation and activities of political parties, as well as other public associations, which strive to violently change the constitutional system or are conducting propaganda of war, national and racist hostility, are prohibited.

    The Republic of Belarus recognizes the priority of universally acknowledged principles of international law and ensures that its legislation conforms to its norms. In its foreign policy, the Republic of Belarus proceeds from the principles of the equality of States, nonuse of force or threat of force, inviolability of borders, peaceful settlement of disputes, noninterference into domestic affairs, and from other universally recognized principles and norms of international law. The Republic of Belarus has set the goal to make its territory a nuclear weaponfree zone and to achieve neutrality.

    The Republic of Belarus is a fullfledged member of the world community. It recognizes the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the UN Charter, the International Convents on Civil and Political Rights and on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and participates in the agreements within the framework of the OSCE and in many international conventions.

Aliens and stateless persons exercise their rights and freedoms on the territory of the Republic of Belarus and discharge their duties equally with the citizens of the Republic, unless otherwise established by the Constitution, laws and international agreements.

    In accordance with the Constitutional norm, the Republic of Belarus may grant refuge to persons being persecuted in other countries for their political and religious convictions or on account of their nationality.

    The Constitution of Belarus proclaims that everyone is equal before the law and has the right, without any discrimination, to equal protection of one's rights and legitimate interests.

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